In which rituals of Hajj may one authorize a proxy?

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What is the ruling on having a proxy in the pillars of Hajj: Tawaaf, Sa‘i, standing on the mount of ‘Arafah and duties like staying the night in Mina and Muzdalifah, farewell Tawaaf, slaughtering sacrifice and throwing pebbles?


All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) is His Slave and Messenger.

If one cannot perform Hajj in person due to old age or suffering from an incurable illness, while being able to financially afford Hajj (the provisions and the travelling method or the needs of travelling that replace them nowadays, including tickets and the money needed for spending and transportation between the places of rituals), then he is obliged to assign a proxy to perform Hajj on his behalf, according to the opinion of the majority of scholars.

Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that a woman from the tribe of Khath‘am said: "O Messenger of Allah! The obligation of Hajj enjoined by Allah on His slaves has become due on my father and he is old and weak and he cannot sit firm on the mount; may I perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet replied: "Yes." That happened during the Farewell Hajj (of the Prophet). [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The one who can perform Hajj in person may not assign a proxy in the obligatory Hajj according to the consensus of scholars. Ibn Al-Munthir, may Allah be pleased with him, said:
People of knowledge agreed that if one is liable to obligatory Hajj and he can afford Hajj physically and financially, then it does not avail him that someone else performs Hajj on his behalf.

If one performs Hajj in person but it is hard for him to throw pebbles due to sickness or old age, then it is permissible for him to assign a proxy to do that on his behalf.

He may not authorize a proxy in Tawaaf, Sa‘i, standing on ‘Arafah or staying in Muzdalifah.
Proxy is not valid in these rituals; rather, the pilgrim himself must perform them whether by walking, riding or being carried, according to his ability. It is permissible for the weak to leave Muzdalifah after midnight.

If one is unable to stay the night in Mina, he is not liable to anything. Hajj is not valid if one of its pillars is not performed. These pillars are: Ihraam, standing on the mount of ‘Arafah, Tawaaf and Sa‘i.

Concerning slaughtering the sacrificial animal, it is permissible for the pilgrim to authorize others in it, whether he is capable of doing it in person or not.

Allah Knows best.

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